The successful implementation of the 12th Sustainable Development Goal of the United Nations (Agenda 2030), requires the economic transition to a sustainable economy that needs to be structured as a circular economy. The main principle is the reuse of waste and the acquisition of new raw materials in order to create a self-sufficient supply of raw materials to the economy in order to prevent the extraction of new natural resources because of the negative environmental impact arising from this exploitation. There may be the theoretical paradigm of self-sufficient societies, but in fact, everyone and each community rely on others.
A sustainable economy model gets very complicated and is therefore often reduced to such basic, local models of small self-sufficient communities. The concept also involves the reuse of waste sources. In the simple model, it is easy to describe a circular economy as a relatively homogeneous output that can be connected to a relatively homogeneous input or to very specific products. Nonetheless, the ideas for creating a sustainable economy are based on simple models that lead to the development of goals such as the 12th SDG for responsible consumption and production, including the objective of developing a circular economy.